Working for peace & justice through nonviolence since 1915.
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Strategic nonviolent movements are one of the most potent forces in the world. They oust dictators, change policy and realize the hopes of communities. For over 100 years FOR has strengthened the movements that reshape society through our work in Black Lives Matter, training in Nonviolent Civil Disobedience, training in Jail Support and Fiscal Sponsorship.
Relationships established through strong communities are the glue of our work. We ground ourselves in relationships of accountability and a spirituality that spans faith traditions. We help build communities that reflect our vision of Beloved Community through our Chapters, Networks & Affiliates, Interreligious Engagement & Understanding, Intentional Communities and Retreats for Movement Leaders & Activists.
We see nonviolence as a way of life, a moral commitment, and a social tool. As a branch of IFOR's international network we work with partners around the world to end militarism in all of its forms, working through the International Fellowship of Reconciliation, United Nations Advocacy, Demilitarizing Communities, Boycott Divestment and Sanctions, Anti-drone Initiatives and #GiveRefugeesRest.
The Global Day of Action and Prayer for Syria will be held on September 21. In preparation we have asked guest experts to contribute essays that help our understanding of “the things that make for peace.” We hope these will help in our understanding of an alternative vision of peace with justice and practical peace-making strategies that can stand as alternatives to the war and violence that is being perpetuated in Syria. This is the second in this series of background essays.
Nonviolent resistance is a methodology of pursuing social and political change through protest, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation (such as strikes and boycotts), the creation of alternative institutions and educational models, and other methods, without using violence. While these tools have been used for millennia—as long as humans have exerted power over one another—the philosophy and practice of nonviolent struggle has grown exponentially since the early 20th century.
Owing greatly to the inspirational teachings of Mohandas Gandhi and the legacy of the satyagraha (truth force) movement led by the Mahatma in the early 1900s, nonviolent resistance has become a foundational framework for social movements worldwide. Communities in struggle against oppressive systems—from political dictatorships to illicit corporate actors—regularly use nonviolent tactics to gain moral legitimacy and ethical suasion.
Researchers Erica Chenoweth and Maria Stephan argue in their 2011 book Why Civil Resistance Works that nonviolent resistance campaigns are more than twice as effective as violent ones, citing dozens of global examples from the past century. Nonviolent resistance, they report, presents fewer obstacles to moral and physical involvement, information and education, and individual commitment. Greater participation then contributes to enhanced resilience, more tactical innovation, increased opportunity for civic disruption, and shifts in loyalty among opponents’ supporters (including the military). They find successful nonviolent resistance movements usher in more durable and internally peaceful democracies, which are less likely to regress into civil war.
For some, indeed, nonviolent resistance is strategic: a method to be deployed in certain circumstances, especially when facing heavily militarized state security or other armed forces. But many activists have adopted nonviolence as a way of life, and not only as a tactical asset. Spiritual practitioners like Martin Luther King, Jr. in the United States and Thich Nhat Hanh in Vietnam have received global recognition for proclaiming steadfast love of their political opponents while pursuing dramatic goals toward social change. (See Rev. Dr. King’s “6 Principles of Nonviolence.”)
Starting in late 2010 and throughout 2011, popular uprisings swept through the Middle East, becoming known as the Arab Spring movement. Beginning in March 2011, hundreds of thousands marched in the streets of Syria calling for greater human rights, the release of prisoners of conscience, and dramatic political change. Local Coordination Committees played a key role in supporting nonviolent resistance during the early months of the uprising. The Syrian Nonviolence Movement, with the support of diasporic Syrians, globally promoted the practices of noncooperation, civil disobedience, and the building of parallel structures and institutions.
The Bashar al-Assad regime responded harshly to these nonviolent acts of mass resistance, imprisoning hundreds of protesters and using live ammunition and even bombs against the marchers. By July 2011, news agencies reported military cadets were seen joining the mass marches. That October, a network of civil society groups organized under the banner of Freedom Days; in December they sponsored a two-week Dignity Strike that featured strikes of stores, universities, and government agencies as well as acts of civil disobedience.
In April 2012, another round of nonviolent actions were launched through the Stop the Killing movement. A primary organizer, a 32-year-old female lawyer named Rima, was detained by Syrian forces in November along with three other courageous Syrian women when they staged a “Brides of Peace” public demonstration that called for the end to all military actions in the country. In the following months, despite immoral, brutal acts by both the regime and rebel forces (including “siege warfare” that denied food and humanitarian aid to civilian populations), which yielded a staggering death toll, many communities continued to organize creative acts of nonviolent resistance.
Today, more than five years into this conflict, many have become desensitized to reports of numerous armed factions seeking battlefield victories. The civil and proxy war being waged by the Assad regime, Daesh/ISIS/ISIL, rebel forces, and outside aggressors (including Russia, the United States, Turkey, Iran, and others) now represents one of the deadliest conflicts in modern history; more than half a million Syrians are presumed dead. In the context of such a devastated country—which has also suffered at least half its population displaced, a destroyed infrastructure, and embittered sectarian movements defining and exploiting religious and cultural divisions—the prospect of nonviolent change might seem impossible. Yet the cycle of violence will continue endlessly unless political and social space is made for a nonviolent way.
There continue to be extraordinary efforts by Syrian civilians to act nonviolently in the midst of war, and a lasting resolution of the civil war will depend on whether the international community will choose to support Syrian-led initiatives centered on restorative justice and transformative dialogue that includes all stakeholders in the conflict.
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Contact: Ethan Vesely-Flad, Director of National Organizing, Fellowship of Reconciliation, firstname.lastname@example.org
Buddhist Council of New York | The Center and Library for the Bible and Social Justice | Colomban Center for Advocacy and Outreach | Community of Living Traditions at Stony Point Center | Conference of Major Superiors of Men | Disciples Peace Fellowship | Fellowship of Reconciliation | Global Ministries of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and United Church of Christ | Interfaith Center of New York | Kolot Chayeinu/Voices of Our Lives | Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns | Mennonite Central Committee U.S. | Muslim Peace Fellowship | Pax Christi International | Presbyterian Church (USA) | Presbyterian Peace Fellowship | Refugee & Immigration Ministries, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) | United Church of Christ, Justice and Witness Ministries | United Methodist Church, General Board of Church and Society
Director of National Organizing
Fellowship of Reconciliation
We focus on building movements and peace networks by acting as a resource hub for activists, organizers and communities. Through our network of chapters and affiliates we connect movements at the grassroots level.
We provide workshops, educational resources, strategic consulting, and speaking engagements for diverse audiences. We run young adult leadership development programs and nonviolent direct action trainings for front line movements.
We're part of a global Fellowship growing a vibrant, creative, international and intergenerational peace and justice movement. More than 70,000 consituents in the US participate in our base-building work. Join us!
For over 100 years FOR members have led the strategic application of nonviolence to political and social change movements worldwide. We honor and count among our number Martin Luther and Coretta Scott King, Thich Nhat Hanh, Adolfo Perez Esquivel, Muriel Lester, Sulak Sivaraksa, James Lawson, Jean and Hildegard Goss-Mayr, Andre and Magda Trocme and many more.
FOR recognizes individuals and organizations who make exceptional contributions to peace, justice and reconciliation. We honor unsung grassroots activists with the Local Hero Award, US justice leaders with the Martin Luther King, Jr. Award, and international peacemakers with the Pfeffer Peace Award.
Since 1918 FOR has produced publications and a national journal to shape and reflect learning on the power of nonviolent social change. Since 1934 that award-winning journal has appeared under the title Fellowship, now issued twice yearly in summer and winter. FOR's national newsletter, Witness, is produced in spring and fall and provides highlights of campaigns and projects led by grassroots FOR chapters and affiliates.